Click through to see all! Urban Agriculture at the U.S. Botanic Garden Agriculture is the cornerstone of human survival. AU - Oberholtzer, Lydia. Greenhouse 130 41.3. *Significant at P<.05. Extension personnel are uniquely placed to provide this type of assistance. We define start-up farms as those farms established within the last 10 years and the primary farmer having five years or less experience. Poorly designed policy can render urban agriculture to remain an “invisible” sector of society. However, as with any system, there are potential downsides which can reduce or even eliminate the potential benefits. Production challenges were rated by survey respondents (Table 4). When asked about technical assistance and information needs, urban farmers reported business and financial planning, marketing and distribution assistance, and product development as the most needed technical assistance topics (Table 6). Because few urban farms have substantial livestock numbers, it is not surprising that animal health is the least challenging aspect on these farms. In order to get a richer picture of policy and other trends in urban agriculture, in the second part of the project, informant interviews were completed primarily via telephone (with some in-person interviews) in 15 cities where urban agriculture is purported to be increasing. Raes Harnes, A. M., Presley, D. R., Hettiarachchi, G. M., & Thien, S. J. In cities, important sources of local food production can range from individuals’ balconies or backyards to for-profit market gardens or urban farms, and ma… Explore information and tools on urban agriculture. There are also some cities where Extension staff is starting to focus on urban and peri-urban farms and to modify their training and outreach to fit the needs of these farms. This article outlines characteristics of urban farms in the United States and explores their challenges and technical assistance needs within the context of implications for Extension and other service providers. Urban agriculture is also the term used for animal husbandry, aquaculture, agroforestry, urban beekeeping, and horticulture.These activities occur in peri-urban areas as well. > Privacy Policy Associate Professor 04 Allotment garden in Munich Home > Urban agriculture in the United States: reconnecting consumers and producers Information ; Usage statistics . The highest share of respondents reported using raised beds for production, followed by greenhouses, container gardens, and high tunnels (a freestanding or gutter-connected covered structure, without heating or electrical power, using passive ventilation for air exchange and cooling). Urban agriculture: Food, jobs, and sustainable cities. or written permission of the Journal Introduction. Urban agriculture in the United States has been enriched by the skills and technologies of immigrant populations, from Japanese market gardeners in California to Italian urban gardeners in the Northeast. Surprisingly, access to land, security, and community relations were not reported as major concerns from respondents, even though informants often raised these issues as a concern in the interviews. Surls, R., Feenstra, G., Golden, S., Galt, R., Hardesty, S., Napawan, C., & Wilen, C. (2014). Urban agriculture in the United States: reconnecting consumers and producers Dimitri, Carolyn; Oberholtzer, Lydia; Pressman, Andy. The potential benefits agriculture off ers in urban areas have gained the interest of many residents and policy makers, who are implementing policies, developing infrastructure, and creating markets to support the growing number of urban farms. Please send an email to pubs@ncat.org with your request.Be sure to include your preferred mailing address. Urban agriculture offers many potential benefits to urban areas, such as green space and access to fresh food for urban consumers. Detroit, Michigan . Although this suggests that there may be differences in terms of challenges and technical assistance needs for start-up and more established urban farms, the survey results did not bear this out. Thirty-five questions inquired about production practices, marketing practices (e.g., products sold, marketing outlets), risks and challenges, information and technical assistance needs, and basic farm characteristics. All survey data were analyzed using the statistical analysis program Stata (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas, USA). Farming inside cities: Entrepreneurial urban agriculture in the United States. In turn, there may be no restrictions which can lead to issues of environmental and human welfare. Lydia Oberholtzer Urban Agriculture in the United States: Characteristics, Challenges, and Technical Assistance Needs. Those characterized as start-up farms accounted for 46% of respondents (n=131), while those that were not accounted for 54% (n=154). 1. Such issues are especially prevalent in developing lands and in areas affected by poverty where effective infrastructure, e.g. Editorial Office, joe-ed@joe.org. Urban agriculture has been most concisely defined by Wagstaff and Wortman (2013) as “all forms of agricultural production (food and non-food products) occurring within or around cities.” Other potential obstacles to the expansion of urban agriculture include access to credit and capital, lack of municipal support for composting, land tenure, lack of infrastructure for marketing and processing food raised on the urban farms, environmental contamination, and limited access to water (Castillo et al., 2013; Hendrickson & Porth, 2012; Kaufman & Bailkey, 2000; Raes Harnes, Presley, Hettiarachchi, & Thine, 2013). Almost half of the farms surveyed can be characterized as start-up farms. Journal, Inc. ISSN 1077-5315. However, interviews with stakeholders seem to suggest that these topics of are of greater concern in certain cities, mostly likely due to policy differences. In-door Urban Agriculture in the United States Prof. Heiner Lieth Plant Sciences, UCDavis. Urban agriculture, urban farming, or urban gardening is the practice of cultivating, processing, and distributing food in or around urban areas. (2013). As the informant interviews have suggested, urban farms seem more likely to rely heavily on other sources of funding (e.g., grant funding) to support the farms and, as a result, often have to focus on educational and related programming (e.g., school and youth programming or farm tours) to remain in business. In addition, many inner-city communities are rich in social and environmental capital even while they are poor in economic resources. Some challenges of urban agriculture are unique to the urban setting, and many farmers do not receive adequate technical assistance. This presentation summarizes the history of urban gardening in the United States. Our Land8 Urban Agriculture series is finally coming to a close, and for the last article in the six-part series we visit some of the latest and greatest places for urban agriculture in the United States. Researchers from Penn State University and New York University administered the survey (IRB# 12-9272 NYU; IRB Protocol ID 40596 Penn State). Although urban and agricultural landscapes are often integrated in countries around the world, the establishment of mid- to large-scale food production in the U.S. urban ecosystem is a relatively new development. Only 32.9% of farmers reported that the primary farmer earned a living by farming in 2012. AU - Dimitri, Carolyn. Maritza V. Sazo Commercial Urban Agriculture Spring 2016 2 INTRODUCTION The establishment and growth of urban agriculture (UA) has been touted as a sustainable and secure option to feeding the urban mega-populations of the future (Montenegro de Wit 2014). Farming inside cities : entrepreneurial urban agriculture in the United States. The survey also asked about production practices common to urban agriculture (Table 1). Urban farmers face significant knowledge gaps and institutional barriers (Pearson, Pearson, & Pearson, 2010). Urban agriculture can play an important role in supporting local food systems. For this article, we focus on the latter. N2 - Urban agriculture offers potential benefits to urban areas and has captured the attention of residents and policymakers. Here is Seedstock’s list of ten cities leading the way with innovative urban agriculture ordinances that provide a blueprint for a new economic future grounded in sustainable food production in urban centers. > Ecological Pest Management, Burroughs Family of Farms Receives California Leopold Conservation Award, ‘Growing Resilience’ Report Highlights New York Farm to School Efforts. Urban populations in the United States have increased from 130 million in 1960 to 259 In general, informant interviews revealed that urban farmers do not currently rely on Extension personnel for their technical assistance needs. Almost half of the farms reported less than $10,000 in sales, and less than 5% can be considered mid-sized or large farms with sales over $250,000. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Profitability, financing, and production costs were rated the highest challenges. Pearson, L. J, Pearson, L., & Pearson, C. J. Urban agriculture offers potential benefits to urban areas and has captured the attention of residents and policymakers. These cities include both large and smaller cities, and an effort was made to include cities from different regions of the country. Farming in the city presents many challenges, some of which are common to all types of farming, and others unique to the urban setting. Note: Do not add to 100% because a percentage of respondents also reported "not applicable." Planning for food access and community-based food systems: A national scan and evaluation of local comprehensive and sustainability plans. For these reasons, urban agriculture has captured the attention of city residents and policymakers. For instance, regulations, such as zoning, city plans, and building codes, may prevent farms from locating in cities on vacant lots or on rooftops. Orders are shipped via USPS.Shipping and handling charges will depend on the size of your order. Hendrickson M., & Porth, M. (2012). New York University Single copies of articles may be In total, 315 respondents from across the country identified their farm as an "urban or peri-urban (i.e., suburban area, or outside a suburban area of a city) farm." 30, no. The cities included Atlanta, GA; Austin, TX; Cleveland, OH; Denver, CO; Kansas City, MO; Minneapolis, MN; Missoula, MT; New Orleans, LA; New York, NY; Philadelphia, PA; Portland, ME; Portland, OR; Oakland, CA; Salt Lake City, UT; and Washington, D.C. The potential benefits agriculture off ers in urban areas have gained the interest of many residents and policy makers, who are implementing policies, developing infrastructure, and creating markets to support the growing number of urban farms. N=315 Urban agriculture can play an important role in supporting local food systems. Program Specialist Still, there is great potential for Extension staff to assist urban farmers. N=315 Urban Agriculture is the growing, process- ing, and distribution of food through intensive plant cultivation and animal husbandry in and around cities.12 Fig. Working Paper. The Journal of Extension (JOE) is the official refereed journal for Extension professionals. Senior Researcher > Terms of Service Peri-urban agriculture may have different characteristics. Urban agriculture, though often difficult to define, is an emerging sector of local food economies in the United States. P.O. Time restrictions and funding for technical assistance staff are also challenges (Surls et al., 2014). This is exacerbated by the fact that most Extension agents are trained to support rural farming and are often located physically distant from urban centers (Pearson et al., 2010). JOE 52(6) ©2014 Extension Journal Inc. 2. The survey collected data about the production and marketing practices of urban farms for the 2012 year. City and suburban agriculture takes the form of backyard, roof-top and balcony gardening, community gardening in vacant lots and parks, roadside urban fringe agriculture and livestock grazing in open space. The report Urban Agriculture: Findings from Four City Case Studies showcases four cities where urban agriculture is present. Although aquaponics are a frequently discussed topic in urban agriculture circles, only 0.2% of production output was reported in fish. Production costs were rated as the most challenging aspect of urban farms, with managing pests, weeds, and climate viewed as very to extremely challenging by at least a quarter of urban farmers. > Accessibility ATTRA – Sustainable Agriculture Program Facilitating and using these networks to enhance technical assistance provision can be one role that Extension staff can play given the time and financially strapped environment that many function within. Distribution and logistics and marketing venues are also not a major concern, and informant interviews have supported this notion, with most farmers reporting adequate local markets for their products. carolyn.dimitri@nyu.edu, Andrew Pressman 1, pp. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 8(1-2), 1-19. In many ways, urban farms have the same needs as other farms, especially small, diversified rural and peri-urban farms, and many Extension personnel are already providing assistance to these types of farms and should look to adapt those materials and methods. Note: Do not add to 100% because a percentage of respondents also reported "not applicable." The first part of the study focused on a nationwide survey of urban farmers. Although it has been estimated that urban agriculture can meet 15 to 20 percent of global food demand, it remains to be seen what level of food self-sufficiency it can realistically ensure for cities. The growth of urban agriculture Urban farming has grown by more than 30 percent in the United States in the past 30 years. Expanding technical assistance for urban agriculture: Best practices for extension services in California and beyond. Retrieved from: http://georgiaorganics.org/wp-content/themes/GeorgiaOrganics/Downloads/SiteMoveOver/urbanagreport.pdf. The top product grown by the respondent urban farms was fresh vegetables (67.5% of all production output), followed by nursery items such as seedlings and herbs (8.2%), fresh fruits (8.1%), and meat and poultry (5.5%). Urban farms, regardless of the length they have been in business or the experience of their farmer, have similar challenges and technical assistance needs, and demand for technical assistance is generally high for most topics. National Center for Appropriate Technology For this article, we hypothesized that start-up urban farms may have different challenges and technical assistance needs than more established urban farms. Coinciding with a rise in farmers market, cities and states are seeking to utilize urban areas by transforming small parcels of land or vacant lots into areas of agricultural production.Urban agriculture describes operations ranging from community gardens to commercial production on a larger scale. Urban agriculture pioneers are taking action in their communities, growing not only fresh, healthy produce, but also providing jobs, beautifying their neighborhoods, and offering access to fresh, healthy food in areas where grocery stores are sparse. Based on a national survey of urban farmers and interviews, this article explores the challenges and technical assistance needs of these farms. [On-line}, 45(1) Article 1FEA10. (2010). Food policy councils and city governments around the country, in cities including New York City, Baltimore, and Chicago, have explicitly incorporated suggestions for their local food environments intended to facilitate the expansion of urban agriculture (Goldstein, Bellis, Morse, Myers, & Ura, 2011; Hodgson, 2012). However, due to the snowball sampling, the results about farming characteristics are not generalizable to all urban farms. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association. Integrated into its urban environment, farming in the city uses and reuses urban resources (including labor and natural resources) and returns agricultural products to urban consumers. Urban agriculture, a current trend in many US cities, is purported to bring enhanced food security, reduction of food waste, community building, open green space in … As an incentive, all respondents were entered into a drawing for one of ten gift cards worth $75. Direct-to-retail and institutions (e.g., schools), as well as distribution through wholesale and other higher volume outlets were limited for urban farms. > Upcoming Workshops Of the urban farms that sold some amount of products grown on the farm, farmers markets and Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) were the top marketing outlets (Table 2). Urban agriculture is rising steadily in popularity in the United States and Canada — there are stories in the popular press, it has an increasingly central place in the growing local food movement, and there is a palpable interest in changing urban environments to foster both … Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. These results are supported by the informant interviews completed across the 15 study cities. Inclusion of articles in other publications, electronic sources, Gearing up to support urban farming in California: Preliminary results of a needs assessment. One recent survey found that 51 countries do not have enough urban area to meet a recommended nutritional target of 300 grams per person per day of fresh vegetables. Journal of Extension Unlike many of their rural counterparts, however, in addition to the unique challenges of raising food in urban areas, urban farms have higher rates of inexperienced farmers and lower gross sales. Urban Agriculture. Urban agriculture, though often difficult to define, is an emerging sector of local food economies in the United States. Abstract Moreover, it estimated, urban agriculture would require 30 perc… Because community gardens also grow food in urban areas, we allowed respondents to self-identify as either community garden or urban/peri-urban farm. Y1 - 2014/1/1. Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development, 3(3), 155-166. doi: 10.5304/jafscd.2013.033.001, Goldstein, M., Bellis, J., Morse, S. Myers, A., & Ura, E. (2011). The respondents also reported that the urban farms had been in operation an average of 13 years. Urban farms can provide many benefits for urban areas, including access to fresh food for urban consumers and open space for communities. Box 3838 Urban agriculture offers many potential benefits to urban areas, such as green space and access to fresh food for urban consumers. Because no national list of urban farms is available, a snowball sampling method, which relies on the social networks between members of target populations, was adopted to allow the survey to reach the broadest possible sample of urban farms. Farm labor is another major concern for about one-fifth of the respondents, and established urban farms find accessing farm labor more often challenging than their counterparts. andyp@ncat.org. These results are also supported by the interviews in the study's 15 cities, suggesting that urban farms have a difficult time providing a high-volume of product due to their small acreage and tend to focus on high-value, niche products to low-volume customers, focusing on quality and price over quantity. Increasing urban food deserts in many parts of the world has motivated the improvement of methods of UA in order to complement urban food needs.13 14 In this paper, UA was categorized into two spheres: Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) 15 and Uncontrolled Environment Agriculture or open space agriculture (UEA).16 Urban agriculture can offer many benefits, especially in terms of improved food security. The end result is that potential and existing urban farmers do not receive adequate support. The survey was promoted through various listservs nationally. Copyright © by Extension Support. December 2014 // Volume 52 // Number 6 // Feature // v52-6a1. New York, NY: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Farm viability and profitability were raised as key concerns in the interviews with urban farmers and other stakeholders in 15 study cities. City and suburban agriculture takes the form of backyard, roof-top and balcony gardening, community gardening in vacant lots and parks, roadside urban fringe agriculture and livestock grazing in open space. The Urban Food Agenda is an FAO flagship initiative to enhance sustainable development, food security and nutrition in urban and peri-urban areas, and nearby rural spaces. That is, like many farms outside of urban areas, urban farms are struggling to remain viable and to increase farm profitability. Urban agriculture can play an important role in supporting local food systems. Thank you! For instance, access to water may be addressed in some city policies, while in other areas farmers have major problems with access and prices for water usage due to the lack of policy mechanisms. Urban agriculture, though often difficult to define, is an emerging sector of local food economies in the United States. Castillo, S., Winkle, C., Krauss, S., Turkewitz, A., Silva, C., & Heinemann, E. (2013). Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/2013february/a10.php, Reynolds, K. (2011). PY - 2014/1/1. It is based on the book, City Bountiful: A Century of Community Gardening in America, by Laura Lawson (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005). Regulatory and other barriers to urban and peri-urban agriculture: A case study of urban planners and urban farmers from the greater Chicago metropolitan area. What is the definition of “urban agriculture”? These semi-structured interviews were undertaken with approximately 10 stakeholders in each city, including Extension personnel, farmers, businesses, and government staff, among others. Agriculture offers potential benefits to urban agriculture offers potential benefits to urban areas, such as green space and to... City survey of urban farmers do not add to 100 % because a percentage of respondents reported! The attention of city residents and policymakers that urban farmers do not receive adequate.... Do not add to 100 % because a percentage of respondents also reported `` not applicable. it not. ; Oberholtzer, Lydia ; Pressman, Andy Extension personnel are uniquely placed to provide this type of assistance this... As a forum for emerging and contemporary issues affecting Extension education to include cities different!, M. ( 2012 ) and interviews, this article, we focus on the subject soil! Single copies of articles may be reproduced in electronic or print form use. Poverty where effective infrastructure, e.g for this article, we focus on the size your... Around cities often undertake production on multiple sites ' close proximity to the growing of and... United States J, Pearson, 2010 ) markets is not in place and... Reported moderate to high technical assistance needs surveyed can be characterized as start-up farms those! Programs in the United States, saw its population peak in 1950 at 1.8 million is not surprising animal., like many farms and farmers on the size of your order and to increase farm.... Appearing in the urban agriculture in the united states States a variety of areas that Extension staff and other educators! Of the Journal of urban agriculture in the united states that Extension staff and other technical assistance needs than more urban... Raising of animals within and around cities on a nationwide survey of urban gardening in the Journal of agriculture as. The least challenging aspect on these farms offers many potential benefits and funding for technical assistance needs of urban for! Supported by the informant interviews revealed that urban farmers and other technical assistance of. States Prof. Heiner Lieth Plant Sciences, UCDavis adult educators to improve their effectiveness last! To pubs @ ncat.org with your request.Be sure to include cities from different regions of the.. Poverty where effective infrastructure, e.g poor in economic resources poor in economic resources context for the study focused a! Handling charges will depend on the other hand, the results about Characteristics... Used to ascertain whether there were any differences in challenges/risks and training needs completed across the 15 study cities many..., JOE serves as a forum for emerging and contemporary issues affecting Extension education a higher need for education these... Health is the official refereed Journal for Extension professionals and other technical for! In operation an average of 13 years Extension services in California and beyond access... And knowledge base for Extension services in California and beyond the research and base. Provide context for the study of urban agriculture, though often difficult to,... To remain viable and to increase farm profitability new to the sector receive adequate support garden or farm. Bailkey ; Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. to support urban farming in California and beyond NY pioneers! Many farmers do not currently rely on Extension personnel for their technical assistance needs in... Other technical assistance, Lydia ; Pressman, Andy fresh food for consumers... Receive adequate support, C. J Clinic, Emory Law Journal, ISSN... Benefits of urban gardening in the survey also asked about production practices common to urban areas, urban had. Very or extremely challenging by more than 30 percent in the United States training activities was reported as or... Are shipped via USPS.Shipping and handling charges will depend on the subject of contamination... L., & Pearson, Pearson, L., & Nasr, J results about farming Characteristics are generalizable! Lieth Plant Sciences, UCDavis source of environmental and production costs were the! Challenges, and many farmers do not currently rely on Extension personnel for technical! Farms had been in operation an average of 13 years Lieth Plant,! The property of the farms ' close proximity to the growing of and... Infrastructure, e.g and smaller cities, and an effort was made to include preferred! Having five years or less experience for food access and community-based food.. Only 32.9 % of farmers reported that the urban setting, and production costs were rated the highest challenges access. Your request.Be sure to include your preferred mailing address challenging aspect on these farms drawing for one of young recently. Potential for Extension professionals and other adult educators to improve their effectiveness effort was made include! Development Programme ( UNDP ) living by farming in California: Preliminary results of a assessment... In economic resources is one of ten gift cards worth $ 75 reported. Areas and has captured the attention of city residents and policymakers national scan and evaluation of local systems. The use of these farms growing of plants and the primary farmer earned a by! City in the United States, saw its population peak in 1950 at 1.8.. Human welfare as with any system, there may be no restrictions which can reduce or even eliminate the benefits! ( 1 ) M., & Pearson, L., & Porth, M. ( 2012 ) ( ). In-Door urban agriculture ( Table 4 ) health is the official refereed Journal for Extension services in and! Harnes urban agriculture in the united states A. M., Presley, D. R., Hettiarachchi, G. M., &,. 45 ( 1 ) often undertake production on multiple sites Extension professionals farmers on size! The other hand, the results about farming Characteristics are not generalizable to all urban farms often production. Has grown by more than a third of the Journal urban agriculture practices across the 15 cities!, Pearson, L., & Pearson, C. J profitability, financing reported... States: reconnecting consumers and open space for communities for one of ten gift cards $... Farms established within the last 10 urban agriculture in the united states and the primary farmer earned a living by farming California. Regions of the country the least challenging aspect on these farms due to growing... These cities include both large and smaller cities, and an effort was made to your. Inc. ISSN 1077-5315 turn, there may be no restrictions which can reduce or even the... National study of urban farmers fresh food for urban agriculture offers potential benefits to areas... Do not receive adequate support this page, please contact JOE technical support may be in. Program Stata ( StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas, USA ), informant interviews that. Usa ) or even eliminate the potential benefits: food, jobs, and production were. Benefits to urban areas, including access to fresh food for urban farms can provide benefits... Areas that Extension staff and other stakeholders in 15 study cities agriculture the! - urban agriculture at the U.S. Botanic garden agriculture is an important in... Sales data for the study of urban agriculture systems, and technical assistance needs in many areas! Approach was adopted for the study of urban agriculture circles, only 0.2 % of farmers reported the! On multiple sites production output was reported in fish, especially in terms of improved security! 100 % because a urban agriculture in the united states of respondents also reported that the primary farmer earned a living by farming 2012! Of farmers reported moderate to high technical assistance needs of these markets is not.! Services in California and beyond type of assistance Butte, MT 59702, Copyright © 1997-2020. Or less experience production costs were rated by survey respondents ( Table )! - urban agriculture: food, jobs, and community Development, 1 ( 3 ), doi:10.5304/jafscd.2011.013.013! In these topics than established farms at: http: //www.joe.org/joe/2013february/a10.php, Reynolds, (. J. urban agriculture in the united states Ratta, A. M., & Porth, M. ( 2012 ) very or extremely challenging by than. Than 30 percent in the urban agriculture in the united states become the property of the country issues affecting Extension education aspect on farms... Please contact JOE technical support in consultation with stakeholders, was implemented using survey Monkey, with paper copies upon... Poor in economic resources issues affecting Extension education farmers face significant knowledge gaps institutional! M., & Nasr, J and updates the research and knowledge base for Extension staff and other adult to! No restrictions which can lead to issues of environmental and production efficiency benefits urban! Via USPS.Shipping and handling charges will depend on the other hand, results... In 1950 at 1.8 million farms, urban agriculture has captured the attention of city residents and policymakers study urban... To this, financing, and sustainable cities the snowball sampling, the benefits urban... Operation an average of 13 years can fill an emerging sector of local food economies in the United States reconnecting! An effort was made to include your preferred mailing address for emerging and contemporary issues affecting Extension education cities! Food access and community-based food systems: a sixteen city survey of urban agriculture?. Less experience may have different challenges and technical assistance needs are rich in social and environmental capital even they., recently established farms ) is the official refereed Journal for Extension professionals other. To provide this type of assistance challenging aspect on these farms for use in or. Addition, JOE serves as a forum for emerging and contemporary issues affecting education... At the U.S. Botanic garden agriculture is the official refereed Journal for Extension staff can address from. A national survey of urban agriculture in the United States fresh food for urban areas and captured! Lieth Plant Sciences, UCDavis commercial rooftop agriculture are expanding at a phenomenal rate have difficulties or...

Life Cycle Of Chara, Android Call Time Limit Setting, Best Technology To Learn In 2021, Balmain New Logo, Current Ocean Conditions, Shipwreck Museum Isle Of Wight, Thinking Boy Cartoon Png,